Should You Workout When You Are Intermittent Fasting? (OMAD) | Dr. Nick Z.


In this video you’ll discover everything you
need to know about one meal a day and exercise. Now a lot of people who love this channel
love doing intermittent fasting, they also love one meal a day. Now one of the questions
that always comes up when it comes to one meal a day is when do you incorporate this
exercise? How do you incorporate it? What exercises do you do? I’m having all these
challenges when trying to do OMAD and exercise at the same time. So that is what this video
is really designed to uncover for you. So what we’re going to talk about in this video
is first of all the absolute best time to exercise on OMAD. Some of the different challenges
that it will come up when trying to do exercise and only OMAD and some of the solutions that
I have for you on that, and then also we’re going to talk about the best exercises to
do when doing one meal a day and also what you just need to know in order to navigate
this and really get the best results. But before we get started I’m Dr. Zyrowski and
welcome to the channel. If you’re new to the channel be sure to subscribe. Hit the bell
notification and join our notification community that way can help you excel your health and
your life. So let’s go ahead and dive right into this topic.
Now first of all let’s start with the ideal scenario because you know in the ideal scenario
in the perfect world what we’re going to do is we’re going to work out directly before
breaking our fast. Now the research basically shows if we work out right before breaking
our fast that’s when we’re going to get the best results. We’re working on a fasted
state and we’re going to get the best results for fat burning and we’re also going to get
the best hormonal benefits. The research shows us that it’s boosting growth hormone upward
of 1300% in women in 2000% men when we go in we exercise in a fasted state. So that’s
the ideal scenario right prior to breaking that fast. But then reality sets it right?
You’re not an online workout guru neither am I. We don’t have time to just sit around
all day and just plan our workouts out and get them in the perfect time. Reality sets
in we have work, we have family, and you’re trying to squeeze a workout in anywhere in
between. And that’s what happens to me all the time.
So let’s talk about cardio versus weights. Now when it comes to doing one meal a day
and doing cardio it’s almost absolutely necessary to plan your cardio around the meal .just
because if you’re doing cardio it takes a lot more energy out of you and if you’re trying
to squeeze a cardio exercise in mid fast and then fast for another 5 hours after that it
can be very challenging. Especially, if you’re working or trying to take your family you
just will get fatigued out so when doing cardio it’s best to try to place that cardio right
prior to breaking the fast or place it after. I found typically with cardio it’s a little
bit more difficult to eat that big meal and then do cardio but a lot of people two hours
post meal are typically able to get it in. So if you’re going to cardio do it like that.
Now when it comes to weights it’s a little bit easier to slip that in through the day.
I find that people who are doing weight training and squeezing it in mid fast they’re able
to weight train and then hold that fast off for another couple hours before they eat their
meal. Now when you eat your one meal a day that’s up to you and is really when it comes
to these different strategies it’s really about finding what works best for you in a
sustainable manner. But like I said with weightlifting you can kind of navigate that a little bit
easier put it in throughout the day when you have time put it in mid fast but it is very
difficult to put cardio in just because it is so energy intensive. Let me know what you’re
doing in the comments below when it comes to adding your workout in when doing one meal
a day. What is the time that works best for you?
Tell me so I can know and have some better ideas and then of course share with the community.
Now let’s talk about the challenge with cardio because you know when doing one meal a day
cardio is certainly a challenge like I mentioned before cardio is very energy intensive now
specifically the type of cardio that is going to be long distance running so if you’re out
there running 10 miles if you’re running even 4 or 5 miles.
It’s very difficult to get that cardio in when doing one meal a day. I basically find
that it just doesn’t work for me. There’s no way that I can eat enough food in that
short period of time I don’t feel well doing that and doing cardio. I get fatigued when
I’m trying to do cardio and one meal a day so anytime I want to do like a long distance
cardiovascular workout Basically I go down to 16 in 8 and I cut the OMAD for the day.
So if I want to do OMAD I don’t do cardio long distance cardio and OMAD at the same
time. Now let’s talk about the styles of workout and by the way if you do cardio and OMAD put
it in the comment section below how you go about navigating it. I’d love to know. Now the ideal workout, this is really when
it comes to doing OMAD and it comes to your workout there’s kind of ideal situations.
Now for me personally I like to participate in a lot of forms workout. I like doing jujitsu
I like boxing I like doing yoga I like doing long distance running I like weightlifting
I like doing all kinds of the different exercise after exercising for years for me I just have
to switch it up in order to basically stay entertained with it. Now here’s the best type
of workouts and why. So when doing one meal a day weightlifting is a great style of workout.
One of the things about weight lifting and one meal a day is you’re able to stay really
lean and also weight lift efficiently when doing the one meal a day.
——————————— And the thing is to is because you’re doing
that in 10 more intensive fasting verses like a 16 and 8 or no fasting at all essentially
what you’re doing there is you’re putting yourself in that burning state so you know
if you’re not competing for anything and you just are more concerned about aesthetics then
you can do one meal a day and weightlifting in get some really great results. Now the
other thing I like to do is just mild cardio if I’m doing one meal a day. Some forms of
mild cardio might be a 30 minute walk, maybe a boxing session, it may be a yoga session
those types of mild workouts there are still a workout you’re still getting some exercise
in for the day but isn’t that energy intensive like a 10 mile long distance run. The other
thing that works really well as High Intensity Interval Training. Now high intensity interval
training is a very good because you’re going to get that really intense cardiovascular
workout in a short period of time and the other thing that’s really great about it when
doing one meal a day is it’s not really just exhausting your body or exhausting your adrenals
like a long distance run would combined with one meal a day. So high intensity interval
training basically you take a high intensity workout, get a 20 minute good cardiovascular
session in and it works really well. So weightlifting 30 minute walk or other forms of light cardio
like yoga or even like you know doing some sort of Jiu-Jitsu, boxing and then high Intensity
interval training all work really well when doing one meal a day. And by the way if you
want to get the best performance with your workout you need to be eating right when doing
one meal a day and so what I’ll do is a put a link right up here to my one meal a
day food plan and one meal a day food pyramid. You’re going to want to see that in order
to really know what you should eat to get the best results, check that out. It’s very
powerful. The last here is I want to talk about one of the other ways that you can boost
performance prior to your workout. OK we’re doing one meal a day, you’re fasting all day
you’re probably a little bit fatigued, especially if you’re new to this method I find that the
newbies are very fatigued out whereas like people who are a little bit more seasoned
here they’re able to go into their workouts much better. But either way prior to your
workout there’s a couple things you can do in order to boost performance you could drink
a cup of coffee and just get a caffeinated boost there you can also use an essential
amino acid which is one of the things that I like to do because it’s going to really
give you those amino acids that are available for rapid uptake when you’re working out.
It boosts performance a little bit but it also helps with muscle growth. Now the other
thing that I do as well as is I use a pre workout called ATP Octane. Essentially what
it is a nutrient dense pre workout that kind of floods the mitochondria with the nutrients
it needs in order to help give you more energy help build more energy and then also it has
a little bit of caffeine that give you a boost too because you want to be careful when you’re
doing caffeinated beverages and one meal a day because if you’re exhausting yourself
through the fast and then you’re pouring on all that caffeine you can really cause some
major chronic fatigue issues in your body cause some adrenal exhaustion. So we got to
be careful there. And what i’ll do is i’ll put up links to all the resources in the description
below here. So here’s the different things that you need to know when exercising and
doing one meal a day. Be sure to give the video a thumbs up share with your friends.
Let me know in the comments section below what you do for workouts when doing one meal
a day. Once again trying to really comprehend all the different ways people navigate this
because you know some people can almost do anything and find that it works well for them,
where other people struggle in a lot of different fashions. So let me know in the comments section
below and if you want to learn more about exercise, nutrition, reversing health conditions
basically what you’ve got to do is subscribe to the channel. Hit the bell notifications
to get notified every time a new piece of content comes out. Lastly check out my other
videos right over here and they’ll teach you everything you need to know on one meal a
day and I’ll see you in the next video.

97 thoughts on “Should You Workout When You Are Intermittent Fasting? (OMAD) | Dr. Nick Z.

  1. Walking probably more beneficial post meal than cardio anyway. Less strain on the body focusing with digestion and walking burns fat anyway

  2. It’s odd. The day I do HIIT I’m fine, even fasting after a re-feed. The next day when I break my fast my appetite is huge and it’s tough to shut it down so I just let it run its course

  3. Thank u doc was looking forward to this. Its my 7thday on omad and I jog morning to avoid side crump but am always weak

  4. Thanks Doc, I also do OMAD and a bit of walking, try to get in half hour daily. I use the Bodyfast app to keep me motivated. Have you heard of Bodyfast and if so, what's your opinion?

  5. I’m an excavator so get up at 530 am i fast straight to 530 6 pm so I’m quit active all day 4 days a week I weight train just before I break my fast very intense ? then dig into a big salad ? then protein steak fish pork then I have some carbs 50 to 60 grams of carbohydrates could be just about anything

  6. Dr Z love your videos, great content. I personally find that I can do OMAD about 3-4 times a week. On Mondays it’s always the easiest coming from the weekend cheat meal, I can go longer without eating. I break my fast everyday after my gym session (around 6:30pm) and consistently
    Do weight training and mild cardio (20-30mins) everyday. I find what helps to keep me going is drinking lots of water and kickstarting my days with black coffee. Now sometimes around Thursdays, when I’ve already done OMAD for 3 straight days I will get hungry, and if I do decide to eat I eat a big avocado or 2 small avocados and I can then go workout and continue my routine. Hope the info helps.

  7. I do OMAD and also resistance and cardio every day. (5 days a week). I never get fatigued and cant picture it any other way. Ive lost 65 pounds doing an hour of lifting, then thirty minutes of cardio right after, usually stair master.

  8. Not sure what the big deal is…I get up at 4:30/4:50 AM and at the gym by 5:30…I do 20 minutes of LISS then lift doing a 4 day Upper/Lower split which takes about 45 minutes and then finish with 20 minutes of LISS again. I eat about 8:30ish AM and done. You may have to tweak the times depending on your schedule but it is doable and pretty simple. The best times to eat and workout…no such thing,,,best time is what fits your life schedule…The key is consistency and not stopping and ending back at square one

  9. I do OMAD just after work – which typically will be around 9 pm – then my workout will be around 10.30 am in a fasted state… then I will still fast another 9 hours after the workout… works good for me, but I mostly do weight training…

  10. i love intermittent fasting! (I actually just uploaded my experience of my first three weeks tonight!) – Ive seen lots of people talk about OMAD on IG and I do want to try it! I didnt really consider the effect of exercise! I personally do walking, i would love to do more running so it is good to hear your thoughs on this! I think that is a really good idea to only do 16 hours on intense cardio days! Your channel is so valuable! thank you 🙂

  11. I do Omad and cardio without any problem at all, I wake up at 5:00 hit the gym at 5:40 and do my weight lifting plus intense cardio. The results I'm getting can't stop this!

  12. I do omad-keto 6 days a week, and on Sunday I do a carb re-feed. My schedule is going to bed early and getting up early. I go to bed at 8pm and get up at 2am. I drink a pot of coffee and water when I get up, then by 5am I lift weights for an hour, then walk for an hour. I have my meal at noon.

  13. I lift weights first thing in the morning (6am) for about 45 minutes. Then I do a short (20 minute) and intense HIIT session on the stationary bike at lunch (12:00) time. I wait about two hours and break my fast. I tend to have two meals between 3:00 and 6:00 pm. I would love some feedback. Thanks

  14. When doing OMAD and being crunched for time, doing weight training in circuits is what works best for me. I get cardiorespiratory benefits in addition to the strength/muscle gains while saving a lot of time.

  15. Great video. Thanks for the info! Im response to your request to lost how we do OMAD and cardio, I do cardio 6 to 7 days a week, first thing ij the moring around 530 a.m.: 5-6 days HIIT for 10 mins followed by 10 mins low intensity. 1-2 days I do 40-50 mins low intensity. I do this right after weight training, which I do six days a week for 25 to 35 minutes. As for the OMAD, I eat at night, usually around 6:00 p.m. and sleep at 10:30. But of course keeping the proper "diet" (eating routine) is the key to everything. So far I feel best and see th e vest results with clean OMAD vegan keto.

  16. I start my fast at 21.00 and next day I do cardio at 12.00 and weight-lifting at 17-18.00 and then I break my fast when done, so I fast 21 hours. I have my fasting and training days at mondays, wednesday and fridays

  17. I've always done resistance training (hit) before cardio and it's always worked great for me…been doing this for 40 years 🙂

  18. I take my Dinner as OMAD at 21:30 hours. . . Next Day Morning I do my Weights Training or Cardio. . . I am comfortable with this pattern

  19. When I do OMAD, I weight train in the mornings usually around 11 or 12 am. When I do eat it's usually late in the evening around 4 or 5 prior to starting work, because my job is physical. My energy levels are always good at that time of training, iv gotten lean while maintaining and gaining muscle from strength training.

  20. I do 25 Mile Bike ride at a fast clip once a week the rest of the time I do Ab's 10 – 15 min every morning, and a 30 Min Hits or 1hr Weights ( half body split ) just before my meal between 4pm and 6 pm I only lift twice a week at 58 YO this seems to be a good regiment for me .

  21. Unless one is clinically overweight and in desperate need of a weight loss, why would anyone do a one-meal-a-day (OMAD) coupled with cardio? You will just shrink and disappear! OMAD plus weight lifting/resistance training is most ideal.

  22. Great video Dr. Z!!! I workout early in the morning (530) and eat around noon. I mostly do 40 min HIIT or lifting sessions. Quick question, will the ATP Octane break the fast? Thans

  23. Eat OMAD every day – normally eat between 6 and 7pm. Run for 6 -8 miles every other day – usually around 2 or 3pm. Do core exercises – planks etc and push ups every day – around mid-day, although time for these varies.

  24. Been doing intermittent fasting for over a year. But I can not do one meal a day and a 10 min weight training. I began to have trouble falling asleep. I’m 54 years old and in great shape. Maybe I’m to old? I really don’t know why this happens.

  25. I am 72 and have been doing Omad for 14 months and have gone from 354 lbs to 208 lbs. I eat around noon and I walk for 60 min right before I eat. 3-4 days I use resistance bands.

  26. I commute to work and home on the bike. About 8 miles each way. Either have a small meal around 2(if I feel sleeppy)and dinner around 8 or just have dinner at 8. Also do a 30 min workout with weights, couple of times a week and fence saber for a few hours weekly.

  27. I’m 57 , been fit, strong & healthy my whole life. I do IF 16/8 or 18/6 & lift early in the am fully fasted. When I try to OMAD I over eat & make a pig of myself …. flood gates burst open & I inhale the kitchen … ?

  28. How many calories are you guys trying to hit with OMAD? Is there correlation with actually your metabolism slowing down if you eat less in the long run?

  29. First, I'm from brazil. xD
    I'm doing intermitent fast about 6 months, and I do OMAD most days of the week. My sport is calisthenics, and I use to workout after work, about 6pm. I workout without eating anything, just drink much coffee during the day. My workouts are about 1 to 1:30h and I feel good, and have energy to do it. And I also doing some cardio right after waking up, about 30 minutes. I am in my best shape ever, not a big guy, but I have good muscle mass, and low body fat.

  30. Switching it up, Yama, resistance and reps 1.5 hours + 45 min brisk walk, 15=of that on an incline. Meal is tofu, kale spinach, nooch, acv, 1/2 avo

  31. Before or by noon, I do BodyPump (45-60 min) and then RPM (cycling HIIT for 30 min) back to back. TIP: Always do weights first, then HIIT-cardio. Reason: Body uses up quick release sugar stores needed for weight training and then switches to using fat for cardio. I work out 3x per week with a day of rest or yoga in between.

    I wait to eat until 3 or 4 pm to eat OMAD meal which consists of 3 or 4 courses spread throughout one hour. I'll eat each course every 15-20 min so I can digest my meal – large salad, cooked veggies (incl. starchy veggies), then large portion of protein.

    If I stay consistent with this routine, weight comes off easily.

  32. I been doing one meal a day yet I eat at 7-8 pm and I also found other contents in this subject that it’s best to workout right before the breaking fast which boosts growth hormones. The only by factor for me is that I like and only have time in the morning to workout. And I was told that resistance and-or strength training should be done in the evening and more aerobics/cardiovascular/dynamic/HIIT from the morning and through out during the day including meditation sessions walking more calm exercises.

    Solution for me I guess I can break fast at noon and workout in the morning yet I like doing more dynamic workouts like calisthenics which is sort of a mix of strength, resistance, and balance and adding some HIIT jump roping and sprinting as well..? Any insights, feedbacks, discussions are welcomed please join in!

  33. I do OMAD and workout fasted- well in a way. My workout varies with treadmill, elliptical machine, Zumba and HIIT. Before I exercise I drink about 2 ounces of pure beet juice. It gives me tons of energy during workouts and afterwards. What are your thoughts on this regimen?

  34. Workout 5:00am to 6:30am (30min cardio/60min weights) … OMAD window 5:30pm to 7:00pm, only way I can work it into my schedule and it works for me.

  35. 30 minutes weights and resistance training work best for me 5 days a week.i also make sure to have mineral water with omad. I do body pump 2 times a week.and do my own thing with weights 3-4 days a week.

  36. So glad you brought up this subject. I cycle everywhere now and I cycle too and from work. I Take long roads to work that mean I am cycling up to an hour before I reach work. I also include hills where I do a number of Hits. I change it about each day. with different routes and hills and some times do a chilled out long ride home. I also include some weights during week at home too. Yes I did find OMAD taxing at start but find it is very comfortable now. I do do 16 8 at weekends like you suggested to change things about and find that too is working well. Thank you for all the super help.

  37. I do various calisthenics (ab bench sit-ups, leg weight lifting, arm weight lifting, jumping jacks, push-ups, body combat exercise class, cardio walk – two miles/day. After I'm done with my workout, I eat one high fat and very low carb meal/day.

  38. I'd like to hear comments from people who were not always fit and have lost weight and gotten fit with OMAD/IF and a workout regimen and their schedule.

  39. I do OMD at 5pm and do aerobics exercises from 6:30-7:30 pm. It's work good for me. I have lost 5kgs in one week

  40. I do OMAD I run 3 miles everyday and eat my meal about 2 hours later, I do minor lifting daily 2 hours after my meal. I have dropped 93 lbs. in 9 months.

  41. I’ve been OMAD for about 2 yrs…I eat all my food at 9 am. Then during the day I walk everywhere since I live in a city where that is possible (about 20 000 steps/day). I also weight train at 5 pm and go to bed around 10 pm. I can have this schedule because I work from home…I’m lucky 😉

  42. Not sure I can do OMAD, but definitely gonna start with 20/4 so my eating window is at least 2-4 hours.. Until I know I'm getting all my calories needed.. Cause skinny fat is not my goal.. ?

  43. I do weight training and cardio on keto OMAD and am very fatigued during the day, do you have any tips to make that better? I’m trying to lose that last amount of body fat

  44. I tried combining OMAD with Marathon training. I would run in the morning in a fasted state (after an Americano) and eat a large Keto meal in the evening. But I found that I was chronically tired throughout the day. Perhaps it would have been better to eat my OMAD around lunchtime, or even immediately after my run, but that didn't really appeal to me.
    Currently, I am still running fasted in the morning after my black coffee, but I am eating twice a day (around 12:00 and 18:00). I feel much better. My performance has improved. I am no longer fatigued throughout the day.

  45. Hi Nick , Just to say that I have one small meal for breakfast and then I do my weight training and also a cardio workout 2hrs later. I dont eat again until the next day. i really enjoy your channel

  46. Hi I’m 59 years 143 lbs my routine is as follows:

    Fast 16/8
    water & black coffee only
    Meal at 12: Noon
    HTIT Workout out 6:00pm
    Drink water only
    Prepare for bed sleep from 10:00pm to 6:00am
    Start my day go to work
    Note
    Routine is 5 days Mon to Fri
    Sat Sun still fasting but lighter exercise
    That’s it…!!!

  47. I eat everyday at 10pm…. I would do hit on the treadmill 15 seconds slow 15 seconds fast for 0.50 half mill…. then go left some weights for a few sets then back to finish the other half mill… I do that a couple times during lifting between sets

  48. Strict Keto+OMAD for more than a year now. I eat dinner at around 8pm. Go to sleep at 11pm. Wake up at 5am with a cup of black coffee. Then workout for 1hour mixing heavy lifting(squat, benchpress, deadlift, etc.) and HIIT(rowing machine). Then I do daily business until 1pm when I hit the gym again to do some lighter training for 40 minutes or so. Then work until dinner.
    The only thing I put into my mouth is salty water between the meals..
    I was doing this every single day for more than 6 months now. Works fine for me.

  49. I haven't done OMAD yet but I'm doing IF, which means I'm having one and a half meals a day. However, I think I should try OMAD soon because seemingly, I'm still a little bit gaining weighs.

  50. I’m a muscled up (lean-mass hyper responder) 47y/o man. I lift weights close to noon (twice a week I add HIIT) and eat my LCHF meal between 5PM and 7PM everyday. During the summer, when I want to bulk up a bit more, I try to workout just before the meal. Still testing things out and learning.

  51. Sprints are way better for weight loss then long distance bc unlike long distance which relies on oxygen for energy when doing sprints your body requires glycogen and fat for energy which makes you lose weight and it’s way easier to sprint 100 meters than 1 mile or sumn like that so that’s basically what I do just hiit workouts on sumn like this buh i still do force my self to do a long distance run

  52. I use brewers yeast and L Glutamine to break my fast, so l will train, immediately after working out l take that mix and wait for 30 mins then eat a good meal . Is that OK Dr Nick Z

  53. I get up at 4am and do some HIIT, then go running for 5 miles. In the office at 6:30 and home by 5pm. Go swimming laps for a half hour every day. Gym 3 times a week after that.
    Since I am on Keto I don't really have a problem with hunger, but every few weeks I have to tone it down for a couple of days because I feel week. Fat fasting for 2 days.

  54. I usually do 10 minutes weightlifting, 10 min abs and 10 minutes HIIT on the treadmill. Then fix up dinner for half an hour, eat, and before I go to bed, I watch about 30 minutes worth of videos on my iPad while walking on the treadmill at about 2.9 mph. It works pretty well for me. There are days that I can’t squeeze it all in but for the most part works pretty well. You will be surprised how much you can accomplish when you stop watching TV ?

  55. IS IT OK TO?
    -Lift weights at 4:30am
    -Go to work and drink lots of water all day
    -Get home at 6pm eat a giant salad
    -Then eat a giant balanced healthy meal one hour or two before bed
    -Do that 5 days week but then eat a bit more to refeed a bit on weekends but not going overboard and binging
    THIS SOUNDS LIKE THE PERFECT PLAN FOR ME JUST WORRIED ABOUT POST WORKOUT EATING WINDOW..Thanks 🙂

  56. Hi Doctor. . I break my OMAD on lunch hour. Around 1-2 pm. And i do my walking routine for 1 hour around 5-7pm. . And every 2 days, i do strength training for my muscles growth. . Since June i already loss total 10kg. . It might be slow, but thats all i can do. My target is to get 75kg weight from 97kg. . What can i do to make it faster? At least before new year 2020. ?

  57. Dr. Nick, Love your videos. I have lost 37 pounds in 4 months. I was doing a no-carb ketogenic diet with OMAD. But . . . my doc showed me the results of my urine test and a couple of things were alarming. (I had no idea!) The urine was amber in color, the keytones were negative 80, protein in the urine was negative 30, and there were no calcium oxalate crystals. (I don't know what this all means). I have type 2 diabetes. My doc said that I must eat 50-80 carbs per day. You just scared me so I think I will not eat any rice at all period. I quit all sugar, sweeteners, things with added sugar, grains, flour and etc. I am 77 years old and go to the gym to work out 6 days a week 40 minutes per day. I only do 10 minutes of cardio per day on the ellipsoidal machine. I also have two new knees and walk my dog 3-5 miles a day. All I can say is my doc said to eat some GOOD carbs. I like baked sweet potatoes, squash, hummus and a few others but I steer clear of all junk food. I feel great and the old ladies are hitting on me. Ha ha ha. Congratulations to Mr. Ralph Stephens below. Way to go, brother!

  58. I just eat at the end of my day. I’m up at 5am for work, home at 6pm. I lift for about an hour 3 times a week before eating. Other days I’ll just come home from work and eat a little earlier.

  59. Late comment but I'm doing Warrior Keto. I generally will break my fast in the morning and will train when I get home in the late afternoon/evening.

  60. I do L.I.S.S. cardio, before I break my fast..(2hrs at a time/at least 2days a week/weather permitting on weekends), & Warrior Keto (if my body needs a certain nutrient) or Carnivore Diet (if my weight has stalled for days/weeks)…bodyfat has melted off perfectly since Aug.10,2019….down 24lbs. & still losing on average 2lbs a week. week..<46yrs old>

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *